Water Resources & River Development

In the 9th Plan, under State Plan, the department could receive Rs. 1770.92/- lakhs. On availability of fund under Non-Lapsable Central Pool of resources and NABARD, the department could undertake many major, medium and minor works depending on the specific locations, problem areas and vulnerable areas. Under flood control & river training works, the target was earmarked to complete 20 km but 16.6 km length of works were completed. Out of 23 km length of jhoras training works/ anti-erosion works and protective works, the department has successfully completed 21 km as the fund was diverted to protect public properties and channelize surface run off to safer places. In order to design the drainage system for the surface storm water, the task was entrusted to WAPCOS for Gangtok and surrounding areas up to Rani-Khola & Rorochu. Now, the design is completed and hence schemes have been formulated to provide Jhora training works & drainage system. Besides, the vulnerable areas, where anti-erosion works are required to safeguard the properties, the same have to be provided on priority basis.

The geographical and climate characteristics of the State have deeply influenced to economic and social development. Its mains settlements and economic activities have been built around local ecology and terrain. The impact of climate change due to global warming and other associated factors have adverse impact to disbalance the features of the earth. This is relevant in the context of natural disaster that are occurring with more frequently in the recent years. Environmental preservation therefore takes a high priority for sustainable human development in Sikkim. For preservation of environment and balancing the ecology, the department has great role to play. Human being has no access to natural calamity but mechanical from of disaster is man made and can be controlled and mitigated. The subject matter has a direct impact to down size the natural calamities. Sikkim has an unruly impact of flood, landslide and drainage is also provide anti-erosion works at all the venerable slide and drainage. The department is solely responsible to implement projects to control flood, provide anti-erosion works at all the vulnerable slide prone areas, control unruly discharge of storm water to Jhora/nallah with proper design of jhora providing protection to the public properties. Surface drainage is also provided to channelize surface run off to various jhoras such that no untoward incident is occurred. Massive works in this direction is taken up in 9th plan in criss-cross of Sikkim out of the fund available in Plan, Non-Lapsable central pool of resources and NABARD. Similar natures of works have to be catered in 10th five year plan. The fund is also made available under natural calamity to tackle all such works on emergent basis.

Sikkim receives maximum rainfall and generally lasts more than 9th months. Due to excessive rainfall, soil gets saturated causing landslides in the lower regions; where there is no support to arrest such slides. This is also one of main reason to cause flood. Discharge in the river is aggravated by the debris flow due to landslide and to protection is highly essential to curb landslide and erosion and the protection to this is the from of Anti-Erosion Works and allied works in the hilly regions of the State is essential. State of Sikkim faces disaster due to flood and massive landslide in different parts. People of Sikkim and specially those residing in gangtok during June 1997. This landslides havoc not only took away the lives of some people but also incidents are repeated and the road communities, electricity and water supply are badly affected. The department remains alert to tackle all such situation provided all necessary restoration works/new works are well completed in time and the fund earmarked in other sectors are not effected. The major challenge is faced by the department to provide immediate relief and works are undertaken with the availability of fund from Land revenue Department under natural calamities. While we assess the direct impact of the disaster of such phenomenon, loss of human lives and properties are significant. In many cases, we failed to notice the indirect affect such as disturbances in the studies of students, creation of unhygienic environment, shortage of commodities due to disturbance in transport and communication system etc. From this, we can easily assess the extent of loss, the State has to sustain.

The detailed survey of occurrence of floods and landslides in the State that generally takes during monsoons indicate that due to very high rain for maximum duration, the rivers and rivulets get swollen up during these periods. High intensity rains causes sudden and enormous increase in the discharge of these rivers, rivulets and jhoras which cause heavy floods and bring devastation to the towns located adjacent to rivers, agriculture lands villages situated on the banks of river Teesta and River Rangit including their main tributaries face constant thread of damages due to floods during monsoon. Thread is also posed due to massive landslide due to continuous rainfall of high intensity. The important towns, which are generally endangered by such floods, are Mangan, Lachung, Chunthang, Dikchu, Singtam, Rangpo, Rongli, Melli, Jorethang, Lepgship, Dentam etc. Heavy rains, when spilled over to the rivulets and jhoras running along the slopes, cause landslides of small and large scales. These landslides are also mainly responsible for damages to the agricultural products and other assets of the State. Other phenomena, for example, deforestation has also contributed to the landslides. Disbalance in environment and ecology is also one of the factor to cause landslides. The department has taken number of steps to carry out effective measures to mitigate the flood and landslides. Presently, the department has been practicing to provide G.I.Wire Sausage Wall with plum concrete lining. Even plum concrete and RCC works are also carried out depending the site condition and narture of slope and gravity of the damages. Impact of the floods and landslides has opened eyes of the department to plan ahead different types of schemes to take care of such eventualities. Tenth Five year Plan is therefore formulated keeping in mind the measures to be undertaking for the control of floods, landslides and surface drainage.

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